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Python中正则表达式的用法实例汇总

PHP admin 12个月前 (05-31) 5次浏览 已收录 0个评论
正则表达式是Python程序设计中非常实用的功能,本文就常用的正则表达式做一汇总,供大家参考之用。具体如下:

一、字符串替换

1.替换所有匹配的子串

用newstring替换subject中所有与正则表达式regex匹配的子串

result, number = re.subn(regex, newstring, subject)

2.替换所有匹配的子串(使用正则表达式对象)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
result, number = reobj.subn(newstring, subject)

二、字符串拆分

1.字符串拆分

result = re.split(regex, subject)

2.字符串拆分(使用正则表示式对象)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
result = reobj.split(subject)

三、匹配

下面列出Python正则表达式的几种匹配用法:

1.测试正则表达式是否匹配字符串的全部或部分

regex=ur"..." #正则表达式
if re.search(regex, subject):
  do_something()
else:
  do_anotherthing()

2.测试正则表达式是否匹配整个字符串

regex=ur"...Z" #正则表达式末尾以Z结束
if re.match(regex, subject):
  do_something()
else:
  do_anotherthing()

3. 创建一个匹配对象,然后通过该对象获得匹配细节

regex=ur"..." #正则表达式
match = re.search(regex, subject)
if match:
  # match start: match.start()
  # match end (exclusive): match.end()
  # matched text: match.group()
  do_something()
else:
  do_anotherthing()

4.获取正则表达式所匹配的子串

(Get the part of a string matched by the regex)

regex=ur"..." #正则表达式
match = re.search(regex, subject)
if match:
  result = match.group()
else:
  result = ""

5. 获取捕获组所匹配的子串

(Get the part of a string matched by a capturing group)

regex=ur"..." #正则表达式
match = re.search(regex, subject)
if match:
  result = match.group(1)
else:
  result = ""

6. 获取有名组所匹配的子串

(Get the part of a string matched by a named group)

regex=ur"..." #正则表达式
match = re.search(regex, subject)
if match:
  result = match.group("groupname")
else:
  result = ""

7. 将字符串中所有匹配的子串放入数组中

(Get an array of all regex matches in a string)

result = re.findall(regex, subject)

8.遍历所有匹配的子串

(Iterate over all matches in a string)

for match in re.finditer(r"", subject)
  # match start: match.start()
  # match end (exclusive): match.end()
  # matched text: match.group()

9.通过正则表达式字符串创建一个正则表达式对象

(Create an object to use the same regex for many operations)

reobj = re.compile(regex)

10.用法1的正则表达式对象版本

(use regex object for if/else branch whether (part of) a string can be matched)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
if reobj.search(subject):
  do_something()
else:
  do_anotherthing()

11.用法2的正则表达式对象版本

(use regex object for if/else branch whether a string can be matched entirely)

reobj = re.compile(r"Z") #正则表达式末尾以Z 结束
if reobj.match(subject):
  do_something()
else:
  do_anotherthing()

12.创建一个正则表达式对象,然后通过该对象获得匹配细节

(Create an object with details about how the regex object matches (part of) a string)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
match = reobj.search(subject)
if match:
  # match start: match.start()
  # match end (exclusive): match.end()
  # matched text: match.group()
  do_something()
else:
  do_anotherthing()

13.用正则表达式对象获取匹配子串

(Use regex object to get the part of a string matched by the regex)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
match = reobj.search(subject)
if match:
  result = match.group()
else:
  result = ""

14.用正则表达式对象获取捕获组所匹配的子串

(Use regex object to get the part of a string matched by a capturing group)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
match = reobj.search(subject)
if match:
  result = match.group(1)
else:
  result = ""

15.用正则表达式对象获取有名组所匹配的子串

(Use regex object to get the part of a string matched by a named group)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
match = reobj.search(subject)
if match:
  result = match.group("groupname")
else:
  result = ""

16.用正则表达式对象获取所有匹配子串并放入数组

(Use regex object to get an array of all regex matches in a string)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
result = reobj.findall(subject)

17.通过正则表达式对象遍历所有匹配子串

(Use regex object to iterate over all matches in a string)

reobj = re.compile(regex)
for match in reobj.finditer(subject):
  # match start: match.start()
  # match end (exclusive): match.end()
  # matched text: match.group()

感兴趣的读者可以动手调试一下本文实例代码,相信会有新的收获。


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